1. Archimedes' Principle

F_{\text{buoyant}} = \rho \cdot V \cdot g

where:

- F_{\text{buoyant}} is the buoyant force,

- \rho is the density of the fluid,

- V is the volume of the fluid displaced by the object,

- and g is the acceleration due to gravity.

2. Kinetic Energy Equation

KE = \frac{1}{2} m v^2

where:

- KE is the kinetic energy,

- m is the mass of the object,

- and v is the velocity of the object.

3. Potential Energy Equation

PE = mgh

where:

- PE is the potential energy,

- m is the mass of the object,

- g is the acceleration due to gravity,

- and h is the height of the object.

4. Coulomb's Law

F = k \cdot \frac{q_1 \cdot q_2}{r^2}

where:

- F is the electrostatic force,

- k is Coulomb's constant,

- q_1 and q_2 are the magnitudes of the charges,

- and r is the distance between the charges.

5. Snell's Law

n_1 \sin(\theta_1) = n_2 \sin(\theta_2)

where:

- n_1 and n_2 are the refractive indices of the two media,

- \theta_1 is the angle of incidence,

- and \theta_2 is the angle of refraction.

Engineering Formulas Snapshots
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Actuarial science formula calculator includes a wide range of financial and statistical formulas such as compound interest, present value, future value, annuity, perpetuity, amortization, life insurance, probability distribution, expected value, variance, standard deviation, correlation coefficient, CAPM, beta, Sharpe ratio, Black-Scholes, option pricing models, Monte Carlo simulation, value at risk, Bayes' theorem, moment generating function, and various probability distributions.

It also includes formulas for regression analysis, hypothesis testing, correlation, time series analysis, stochastic calculus, actuarial present value, mortality rates, pensions, annuities, and more. These formulas can be used for various financial and statistical calculations.

1. Supply and demand equation

2. Price elasticity of demand formula

3. Income elasticity of demand formula

4. Cross-price elasticity of demand formula

5. Elasticity of substitution formula

6. Production function formula

7. Total cost formula

8. Marginal cost formula

9. Average cost formula

10. Short-run cost curves formula

11. Long-run cost curves formula

12. Average variable cost formula

13. Average fixed cost formula

14. Marginal product of labor formula

15. Marginal revenue formula

16. Average revenue formula

17. Profit maximization formula

18. Utility maximization formula

19. Indifference curve formula

20. Engel curve formula

21. Production possibilities frontier formula

22. Allocative efficiency formula

23. Pareto efficiency formula

24. Market equilibrium formula

25. Consumer surplus formula

26. Producer surplus formula

27. Deadweight loss formula

28. Gini coefficient formula

29. Lorenz curve formula

30. Cobb-Douglas production function formula

31. Marginal rate of substitution formula

32. Price discrimination formula

33. Herfindahl-Hirschman Index formula

34. Phillips curve formula

35. Okun's law formula

36. Taylor rule formula

37. Z-score formula

38. Cost-benefit analysis formula

39. Discounted cash flow formula

40. Net present value formula

41. Internal rate of return formula

42. Payback period formula

43. Consumer price index formula

44. Producer price index formula

45. Inflation rate formula

46. Unemployment rate formula

47. Real GDP formula

48. Nominal GDP formula

49. GDP deflator formula

50. Consumption function formula

51. Marginal propensity to consume formula

52. Marginal propensity to save formula

53. Multiplier effect formula

54. Aggregate demand formula

55. Aggregate supply formula

56. Price level formula

57. Quantity theory of money formula

58. Money supply formula

59. Velocity of money formula

60. Money multiplier formula

61. Real interest rate formula

62. Nominal interest rate formula

63. Fisher equation formula

64. IS-LM model formula

65. AD-AS model formula

66. Phillips curve formula

67. Government spending multiplier formula

68. Tax multiplier formula

69. Marginal tax rate formula

70. Corporate tax formula

71. Personal income tax formula

72. Value-added tax formula

73. Laffer curve formula

74. Balance of payments formula

75. Current account formula

76. Capital account formula

77. Trade balance formula

78. Exchange rate formula

79. Purchasing power parity formula

80. Law of one price formula

81. Big Mac Index formula

82. Interest rate parity formula

83. Taylor rule formula

84. Open market operations formula

85. Quantitative easing formula

86. Taylor rule formula

87. Mundell-Fleming model formula

88. PPP puzzle formula

89. Expectations-augmented Phillips curve formula

90. Sticky prices formula

91. Monetary policy rule formula

92. Fiscal policy rule formula

93. Debt-to-GDP ratio formula

94. Ricardian equivalence formula

95. Solow growth model formula

96. Harrod-Domar model formula

97. Endogenous growth model formula

98. Cobb-Douglas production function formula

99. Technological progress formula

100. Human capital formula

101. Physical capital formula

102. Total factor productivity formula

103. Neoclassical growth model formula

104. Savings rate formula

105. Investment rate formula

106. Capital stock formula

107. Balanced growth path formula

108. Golden rule savings formula

109. Malthusian trap formula

110. Club convergence formula

111. Conditional convergence formula

112. Absolute convergence formula

113. Relative convergence formula

114. Poverty trap formula

115. High-income trap formula

116. Middle-income trap formula

117. Resource curse formula

118. Total factor productivity formula

119. Cost of flying formula

120. Deadweight loss formula

121. Ability to pay principle formula

122. Progressive tax formula

123. Negative income tax formula

124. Tax wedge formula

125. Laffer curve formula

126. Optimal tax formula

127. Deadweight loss formula

128. Ramsey rule formula

129. Budget deficit formula

130. Public debt formula

131. Fiscal sustainability formula

132. Yardstick competition formula

133. Tiebout model formula

134. Median voter theorem formula

135. Political business cycle formula

136. Rational ignorance formula

137. Median voter theorem formula

138. Swing voter theorem formula

139. Valence politics formula

140. Median voter theorem formula

141. Tullock paradox formula

142. Rational ignorance formula

143. Public choice theory formula

144. Median voter theorem formula

145. Principal-agent problem formula

146. Moral hazard formula

147. Adverse selection formula

148. Asymmetric information formula

149. Signaling theory formula

150. Screening theory formula

151. Brewer's theorem formula

152. Coase theorem formula

153. Tragedy of the commons formula

154. Free rider problem formula

155. Prisoner's dilemma formula

156. Nash equilibrium formula

157. Zero-sum game formula

158. Positive-sum game formula

159. Negative-sum game formula

160. Pareto efficiency formula

161. Nash equilibrium formula

162. Von Neumann-Morgenstern utility formula

163. St Petersburg paradox formula

164. Expected value formula

165. Risk aversion formula

166. Risk neutrality formula

167. Risk loving formula

168. Arrow's impossibility theorem formula

169. Condorcet paradox formula

170. Arrow's theorem formula

171. Homothetic preferences formula

172. Quasilinear preferences formula

173. Giffen goods formula

174. Veblen goods formula

175. Engel's law formula

176. Slutsky equation formula

177. Hicksian demand formula

178. Excise tax formula

179. Lump sum tax formula

180. Proportional tax formula

181. Regressive tax formula

182. Elasticity of taxation formula

183. Tax incidence formula

184. Tax evasion formula

185. Moral suasion formula

186. Tax amnesty formula

187. Tax haven formula

188. Corporate inversion formula

189. Tax competition formula

190. Tax shelter formula

191. Tax avoidance formula

192. Tax planning formula

193. Tax refund formula

194. Tax code formula

195. Tax deduction formula

196. Tax exemption formula

197. Tax deduction formula

198. Tax credit formula

199. Tax bracket formula

200. Tax rate formula

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